Students with behavior problems may have deficits in self- management. A Self Monitoring Check List allows the student to systematically reflect on behavior and record it, thus increasing awareness of their behaviors and teacher expectations. This helps students make the connection between appropriate behavior and positive outcomes
For students that want to escape and/or avoid situations, the Class Pass offers the student control by choosing when and if the pass will be used. If passes are not used and saved a greater reward can be achieved.
The Behavior Contract is an agreement between the teacher, student, and the student's care givers. It is designed to set limits for student behavior, reward good choices, and outline consequences for unacceptable choices. The behavior contract sends a clear message to the child by communicating with them what the expectations are and that their disruptive behavior cannot continue. It lets them know what the consequences of their actions will be, whether good or bad.
The Good Behavior Game
The Good Behavior Game is an approach to the management of classrooms behaviors that rewards children for displaying appropriate on-task behaviors during instructional times. The class is divided into two teams and a point is given to a team for any inappropriate behavior displayed by one of its members. The team with the fewest number of points at the Game's conclusion each day wins a group reward. If both teams keep their points below a preset level, then both teams share in the reward. The Good Behavior Game is an effective means of increasing the rate of on-task behaviors while reducing disruptions in the classroom.
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Token Economy/Response Cost
A method by which students earn tokens or points for behavior, they can exchange for a tangible item, the opportunity to interact with others, or a special activity.
Structured incentives are based on individual student preferences. Structured incentives might include items, activities, access to preferred individuals, etc. resulting in increased motivation, buy in and sustained effort.
Forced Choice Reinforcement Survey
Students may be empowered by a sense of safety and security when they are provided praise and choices.
Empowerment: Praise and Choice
The effective use of praise increases desired, appropriate behavior of students.
Determine the behavior of focus
Provide specific, contingent praise when the desired behavior occurs
Follow the research base for use of praise to increase effectiveness (see following page for summary on effective vs. ineffective praise)
Way of empowering the student
Prevents power struggle
Makes students feel engaged and a part of the decision making process
Students respond better to choices
Improved coping when having to do an undesired task
Decreases conflicts, refusals, defiance, and opposition
Speak in calm, neutral tone
Provide the student with two or more choices that you will fully accept, for example, “you can either do your work sitting at your desk or sitting at the table”
Have the student decide in ten seconds, or you will choose for them, for example, “I gave you several choices. If a choice isn’t made within 10 seconds, I will choose for you” (this prevents the choosing process from going on all day)
Present the entire class or group with choices when assigning work, for example, “Students, you can either do the odds or evens, you choose”
Give choices when rewarding, for example, “Johnny, do you want computer time or a fancy pencil?”
Randomized group contingencies are any of a number of reinforcement systems that involves an entire class in which rewards are contingent upon a group’s performance. It is a form of inter-dependency that considers three components: self-monitoring, peer monitoring, and the learning of how to motivate each other.
Randomized Group Contingencies
Guided notes are an evidence based intervention strategy in relation to increasing academic performance and on task behavior (Konrad, Joseph, & Eveleigh, 2009). Guided notes are pre-made notes that include blank spaces for writing down key components from the lesson of the day.
Behavior Momentum includes identifying a minimum of three behaviors which the student has a high probability of compliance. At least three requests for high probability responses are then made in succession immediately before making a request which the student has a low probability of complying. Once the momentum of compliance is started, it is more likely to continue with low probability responses.
The School-Home Note system provides increased communication between school and home. It maintains consistency between settings and allows an opportunity for parents to discuss stressors that may be occurring outside the school setting and carried in. Parents will need to be trained how to deliver consequences with fidelity.